Monday, January 20, 2020

Challenges Faced by Leaders in Early Contemporary Years :: Social Issues, Collaboration, Communication

Katzenbach and smith (1993) state that ‘‘a team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, approach and performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable’’ as each individual needs to be given the opportunity to put forward and link their personal strengths with their roles and responsibilities in order to enhance and empower the team as a whole. ‘’There is a failure in society to have a single, clear view of the function of early childhood provisions’’ (Jones and Pound, 2008, p. 22). This could cause implications for professionals working together as they could disagree on the goals or outcomes of the setting. Leaders need to support the practitioners within the setting and encourage them to reach their full potential. In contrast, many practitioners may not want to take on the roles of a leader. Jones and Pound (2006) suggest many practitioners have assumed the role rather than applied for it. Often these changes can cause many problems to those who try to resist it due to not wanting extra work or even because they simply do not understand the new job role. Leaders can overcome this by ensuring all practitioners are treated equally and all ideas are considered (Pound and Jones 2008). Wall (2006) embraces Lumsden’s (2005) notion suggesting that a collaboration between professionals is essential to share expertise, information and skills. Wall (2006) supports the need for information to be shared in order to meet the needs of the families. This implies that it is a relationship between individual practitioners that will ultimately decide whether multi agency is effective or not. Jones and Pound (2008) state that a characteristic of an effective multi agency team can exchange information using agreed communication systems. However; there are various challenges which can arise from this, such as; practitioners not having enough time to share information on a regular basis due to their responsibilities. Occasionally co-location makes this easier. Children centres are an ‘’exciting and promising initiative’’ built upon from the governments 10 year strategy for children offering a wide range of services combined in order to make a †˜one stop shop’ which provides resources for lower-income families (Pugh and Duffy 2010 p. 123). Additional government funding has been set in place intended to improve practice and level of qualifications in the early year’s sector. Pugh and Duffy (2010) suggested this was needed to improve practitioners knowledge.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Discuss one Biological and one Psychological Explanation of Aggression Essay

Some biological psychologists point to the role of neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression. Hormones have already been implicated in a number of other psychological disorders, e.g., depression and eating disorders.  Studies have found a strong, positive correlation between levels of testosterone and aggression. This applies to both men (Olweus et al 1988) and women (Ehlers et al, 1980). Clare (2000) noted that girls with the condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia – which is implicated in high levels of aggression – engaged in more ‘rough and tumble play’. Testosterone appears to be most influential at two stages of life – a few days after birth i.e. ‘the critical time period’ when sensitisation of neural circuits happens and in adulthood when testosterone modulates neurotransmitter pathways. Hormones are definitely at least linked to behaviour – although a problem exists in trying to establish cause and effect, which will be discussed later. Much human and non-human research points to a link between the two. For example, when levels of testosterone peak at the time of puberty in young human males, aggression also peaks.  Many non-human animal studies support the idea that aggression is somehow caused or linked with testosterone. One such method of testing this is to castrate various animals. This always leads to a marked decrease in aggression. Furthermore, when testosterone is replaced by hormone therapy in the castrated animals, the aggression of the animal returns to its pre-castration level (Simpson, 2001). This seems to support a causation effect or at least a link between the two. A similar study on cockerels by Berhold found the same effect. More specifically, it seems that androgen stimulation in the early days after birth (up to ten days) causes changes in the neuronal system, which affects the level of aggression of a person through into adulthood. Women are typically less aggressive because their brains contain beta blockers which block most of the effect of the testosterone in the brain. Male mice who are castrated straight after birth throughout their whole life – even if they are given hormone therapy, i.e. huge doses of testosterone, later on in life. If the castration occurs 10 days after birth, the difference in aggression levels is much less obvious. This is supposed to be because of the androgen stimulation in the neural circuits during the early days after birth (Motelica-Heino et al 1993). The usual explanation for the link between testosterone levels and aggression is that testosterone interacts with androgen or oestrogen receptors. During the critical time period, testosterone sensitises certain neural circuits in the brain. This allows for the effects that testerone have which last into adulthood. Testosterone can affect the effect of neurotransmitters, e.g. how fast they move and the amount of neurotransmitter released. It appears to act upon serotonergic synapses, lowering the amount of serotonin available for synaptic transmission. The significance of this is that serotonin inhibits aggression, so less serotonin means more aggression. To prove this, Simpson (2001) carried out an experiment on rhesus monkeys where he gave them serotonin reuptake inhibitors, leading to a marked decrease in aggression. This has been implicated on humans also and has the same effect (Simpson, 2001). Sapolsky has argued that although there is clearly some kind of link between levels of testosterone and aggression, this tells us nothing about individual differences in how people are affected by testosterone, why men are exceptionally more aggressive than women and does not explain why sometimes the highest levels of aggression are found in those with not an exceptionally large amount of testosterone. The relationship between testosterone and aggression is not straightforward. Does testosterone cause aggression? Does aggression increase testosterone secretion? Does neither have an effect on the other (i.e. a third variable is involved)? Bernhardt et al (1998) has shown that merely watching participants win or lose in sports competitions increases testosterone secretion in those who are interested in the game. Indeed, Bernhardt did an experiment where he measured participants’ testosterone levels before and after sports events. Men who watched their team lose had a decrease of testosterone levels by 20% and those whose team won showed a 20% increase in testosterone levels. Clearly, testosterone does not always cause behaviour/emotion, but rather the opposite can occur too. This somewhat dents the argument that hormones explicitly cause aggression.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Essay on Antigone - 1772 Words

The opening events of the play Antigone, written by Sophocles, quickly establish the central conflict between Antigone and Creon. Creon has decreed that the traitor Polynices, who tried to burn down the temple of gods in Thebes, must not be given proper burial. Antigone is the only one who will speak against this decree and insists on the sacredness of family and a symbolic burial for her brother. Whereas Antigone sees no validity in a law that disregards the duty family members owe one another, Creons point of view is exactly opposite. He has no use for anyone who places private ties above the common good, as he proclaims firmly to the Chorus and the audience as he revels in his victory over Polynices. He sees Polynices as an enemy to†¦show more content†¦Some of the times the Chorus speaks in this drama, it seems to side with Creon and the established power of Thebes. The Choruss first speech (117–179) describes the thwarted pride of the invading enemy: The God Zeus hates bravado and bragging. Yet this encomium to the victory of Thebes through Zeus has a cunningly critical edge. The Choruss focus on pride and the fall of the prideful comments underhandedly on the willfulness seen in Antigone and will see in Creon. In Creons first speech, where he assumes the â€Å"Now here I am, holding all authority and the throne, in virtue of kinship with the dead† and reiterates his decree against the traitor Polynices (191-192). In lines 308-309 the Chorus says to Creon â€Å"My lord: I wonder, could this be God’s doing? This is the thought that keeps on haunting me. The Chorus is questioning Creon if it could be the doing of God who buried Polynices, Creon replies; â€Å"Stop, before your words fill even me with rage that you should be exposed as a fool, and you so old. For what you say is surely insupportable when you say the gods took forethought for this corpse† (310-313). Even though Antigone exhibits a blamable pride and a hunger for glory, her disobedience is less serious than those of Creon. It is evident that Antigone’s actions are driven by a love for her brother, and a desire to please the gods. While Creon’s actions areShow MoreRelatedAntigone By Sophocles Antigone1525 Words   |  7 Pagesnothing that the gods demand† (1349-1350). Sophocles’ Antigone takes place in a trying time for the city of Thebes, when Oedipus, their king, and most of the royal family have died, and Creon has just been appointed the new king. Throughout the play, Creon tries on his power as the new ruler, and seems to believe that the gods will not be angry with some of his choices as king, even though they directly violate the divine law. However, in Antigone, when there is a conflict between the divine law andRead Moreantigone987 Words   |  4 Pageshamartia and lastly they need to realize their mistakes and accept their consequences. In A ntigone, there are two main characters that fit the criteria of a tragic hero, but only the protagonist, Antigone meets all of the conditions. Antigone meets the second requirement of a tragic heroine, by fulfilling the criteria of being neither entirely good nor completely bad. In the opening of the play, Antigone asks her sister, Ismene to help her give Polynieces a proper burial but Ismene disagrees becauseRead MoreThe Choices Of Antigone And Sophocles Antigone1560 Words   |  7 Pagesthat Antigone and Creon face in Sophocles’ Antigone differ, their decisions often end up pitted against each other’s, inviting comparison. Since I am juxtaposing the characters’ degrees of rightness, I believe that the rightness of the reasoning, not just their ultimate stances, should be examined. The entirety of his or her argument, not just the conclusion, must be taken into account. I’ll also note that my perspective of rightness could and does conflict with that of the gods in Antigone and SophoclesRead MoreCharacterization of Antigone in Sophocles Antigone2448 Words   |  10 PagesSophocles’ tra gic drama, Antigone, presents to the reader a full range of characters: static and dynamic, flat and round; they are portrayed mostly through the showing technique. In â€Å"Sophocles’ Praise of Man and the Conflicts of the Antigone,† Charles Paul Segal takes the stand that there are two protagonists in the drama (which conflicts with this reader’s interpretation): This is not to say that there are not conceptual issues involved in the characters of Creon and Antigone. But the issues areRead MoreAntigone Summary771 Words   |  4 Pagesunburied to rot. Antigone was dejected with Creon’s ruling and decided to bury Polynices herself. She tried to enlist Ismene to help her, but Ismene was to afraid. Antigone furiously continued with the plan on her own. A sentry discovered Antigone and brought her to Creon. Ismene was also brought to Creon and confessed that she had helped Antigone with the burial rites of Polynices. Antigone stopped Ismene and told her not to admit to an act that she had not committed. Antigone took sole responsibilityRead MoreAntigone2454 Words   |  10 PagesAntigone– The Characterization Sophocles’ tragic drama, Antigone, presents to the reader a full range of characters: static and dynamic, flat and round; they are portrayed mostly through the showing technique. In â€Å"Sophocles’ Praise of Man and the Conflicts of the Antigone,† Charles Paul Segal takes the stand that there are two protagonists in the drama (which conflicts with this reader’s interpretation): This is not to say that there are not conceptual issuesRead More Antigone Essay1318 Words   |  6 PagesAntigone Essay In any story or piece of literature, there will always be the main characters to fill the pages with incessant adventure. The characters whose names appear on almost every page and the characters whose actions the story revolves around. However, a story will also always have its minor characters. These are the characters that contribute heavily to the plot, yet arent mentioned quite as often and are underestimated regarding their importance in the story. In the Greek masterpieceRead More Antigone Essay3001 Words   |  13 PagesSUBJECT Antigone is a play about a woman who disobeyed the Kings order to not bury her brother. The play was written by the famous Greek tragedian, Sophocles, in 441 B.C. The story took place in the city of Thebes and the time period is not mentioned. The main characters introduced in the play are of Antigone, Ismene, Creon, and Haemon. The primary focus was centered on Antigone and the consequences she faces after breaking the Kings orders. In the beginning, the author introduced Antigone and herRead MoreEssay on Antigone1426 Words   |  6 Pagesimprudent judgments will ultimately suffer from the consequences of their actions. In Sophocles Antigone, these prejudices notably surface in the form of paternalism as demonstrated through Creons government, highlighting the importance of gender roles throughout the play. Therefore, analyzing the motif of gender roles and its effect on the definition of justice through the perspectives of Ismene, Antigone, and Creon enables the audience to understand how Sophocles macroscopic analogy to humanitysRead MoreAntigone by Sophocles622 Words   |  3 PagesIn the playwright Antigone by Sophocles, the characters reveal their values while exposing a life lessons through their actions, dialogue, thoughts ,and effects on others. Antigone starts with two brothers, Eteocles and Polyneices, being killed at battle. Creon, the king of Thebes, declares that Eteocles’ death will be h onored and Polyneices’ dishonored. He instead will lay unburied to become the food of animals. When the play opens, Antigone takes Ismene, Antigone and Ismene are sisters of the dead

Friday, December 27, 2019

Advertising and the Young People - 3099 Words

CONTENT PAGE ABSTRACT †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 2 INTRODUCTION †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2 LITERATURE REVIEW †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4 METHODOLOGY †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5 HYPOTHESIS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 LIMITATIONS OF R ESEARCH †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 RESULTS ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 7 CONCLUSION †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 7 REFERENCE †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 8 ABSTRACT The young†¦show more content†¦LITERATURE REVIEW Talking about the behaviors of the young adults in this generation, it has started more than 15 years ago but it has only a limited number of local academic resources to it. There are a number of coverage on the children, tweens and their view of advertisements today. There is coverage on critics and what they think of the advertisements affecting the children today. There is also coverage on young people, but mostly Americans only. And so, there aren’t much academic resources to research on how local teenagers are affected from advertisements and how it affects their spending behavior. There has been limited attention to the study of the young people from the age of 18-35 in Singapore. They are a market that could be researched more detailed in to, they are the ones who can are working for their own – getting driving licenses on their own, marrying later because they want to make sure they can make their own before moving out, and who spend a substantial amount o n shopping at places like Orchard Road. Studies on the children market is concentrated, only focusing on how to attract this market because they are the ones with the spending power and the ones easier to target as they are vulnerable and ask their Moms and Dads to pay for everything they want. All of the studies prove that children spend a substantialShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Advertising On Young People1622 Words   |  7 PagesIn 2006, the average young person could see up to three thousand advertisements every day via television, the Internet, billboards, and magazines (â€Å"Children,† ). As society grows to be more digital, the number of advertisements seen has only increased. With the advertising business expanding to new platforms such as social media, advertisers have found more ways to manipulate the minds of Americans to want to buy the merchandise they are selling. In this quickly growing business, advertisers knowRead MoreHow Tobacco Advertising Influences Young People.1447 Words   |  6 PagesH ow Tobacco Advertising Influences Young People. At the age of fourteen, I had my first puff of smoke. Even before that I knew a lot of cigarette brands due to advertising. Since then I started smoking and when I went to cafeterias and clubs the people who were promoting cigarettes would offer me a new brand to try and gave me free packs of cigarettes and a lighter with their brand. They didn’t mind how old I was, they just wanted to give them away and promote their product. But except thisRead MoreEssay about In what ways does advertising effect young people?650 Words   |  3 Pagessee advertising everywhere around us, in the streets, television, magazine and radio. Currently most companies are finding different ways to sell their products. Advertising expert try to appeal to young peoples needs and feeling making their product attractive and desirable. 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This exposure contributes drasticallyRead MoreThe Tobacco Advertising Ban951 Words   |  4 PagesSome of the arguments which support the placing of the tobacco advertising ban in India are:  · Some might feel that people’s freedom of choice is being affected by this ban imposed by the government but it could also be argued the state should be able to intervene in a situation where its subordinates’ health is at risk, just like a father looks after his underage baby who is not aware of what is good or harmful for him. The country’s government would be doing what is best for its citizensRead MoreTeenage Smokers and Advertisement Essays1085 Words   |  5 PagesTobacco Advertising Works, 2002). Tobacco companies rely on the constant inflow of new smokers to maintain profits and that is why advertisements especially target the younger generation. For every smoker that quits or dies they depend on new ones to take their place. Young people are perspective customers for many types of products. Young people are interested in practicing their part as consumers and they spend billions of dollars each year doing so. For many companies young people areRead MoreNegative Influence of Advertising1524 Words   |  7 PagesNegative influence of advertising on society Advertising by definition is a paid form of  communication  intended to  persuade  an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideas, or services. We are taken  into what the advertisers exactly want us to do - buy their products. Advertisements in themselves are not bad. They do perform an important  role in the society and that is the promotion of products and services  so that people will become aware of themRead MoreThe Dark Side of Advertising1741 Words   |  7 PagesThe Dark Side of Advertising Woolworths, the Fresh Food People! Oh, what a feeling, Toyota! I’m lovin’ it! †¨These are the indestructible jingles that the world of advertising has managed to drum into our heads, over the course of time. Effective? Yes. Escapable? No. Teenagers in contemporary society are exposed to up to 3000 ads per day, meaning that we are constantly bombarded with advertisements from the minute we step outside our bedroom door. As promotional agencies increase their exposure

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Essay on Analyzing the Details of Friendship - 2497 Words

Who is a friend? Imagine your sole confidante, childhood playmate, personal comedian and physiologist disclosing your secrets to a stranger. Unfortunately, this stranger happens to be the person who enforce a form of punishment for the actions that were once a secret. Furthermore, this confidante is considered your friend. Does an instance of this friend disclosing your secret of immoral activities to a person of authority violate the success of the friendship? In fact, this act is not a violation of the laws of friendship. The ideas of friendship are subjective, and thus where you might think your friend’s actions are unjust, your friend is actually looking out for your best interest and security. Also, a good friend would not desire†¦show more content†¦Aristotle highlighted the importance of friendship through various practices and concepts, such as utility and virtue. Virtuous practices were believed to enhance the friendship and encourage happiness among the participants (Kraut 6 4). Unfortunately, a friend whose behavior and practices are malevolent causes a rift in the practice of Aristotle’s principles. Therefore, to preserve the friendship and to protect one’s friend, one must do all that is possible to cease his or her friend’s actions. The pleasures gained from enjoying another’s company in a friendship vary in age, gender and, even more specifically, in individuals. Where a young child may experience a strong liking for his or her companion’s presence on multiple occasions, an adult will be content with one solid interaction. The transition from childhood to adulthood also alters the level of comfort one feels within a friendship. As one ages, one becomes more sensitive to the actions of those around them and will quickly eliminate a friend if his or her doings are not favored. (Doyle, Smith 5) This assessment is a clear indication of how Aristotle emphasizes the benefit of comfort in a relationship Based on Aristotle’s theory, if one’s mental and physical comfort is affected by the unfavorable actions of his or her friend, then how can the company of the friend be enjoyed? When individuals share a level of respect and comfort, they repeatedly partakeShow MoreRelatedBook Eight And Nine Of Nicomachean Ethics1698 Words   |  7 Pages Aristotle discusses the variations of friendships that are present in human nature. He further goes into detail on the terms and grounds on forming these friendships. I will be analyzing the different types of friendship discussed in Aristotle’s Ethics and answer the difficulties and obstacles present in trying to achieve the perfect friendship, the friendship based on goodness. The beginning of Book eight of the Nicomachean Ethics states that friendship is a â€Å"kind of virtue and it is also mostRead MoreEssay about The Third Man, Historical Analysis1550 Words   |  7 Pagesto Vienna to work by his childhood friend, Harry Lime: It is their friendship that illustrates the disparity in the post World War II era, it describes the deception in people, the lack of morality, and friendship: the underlying plot and theme of the film in The Third Man. 1) How do the producers utilize the setting to make the audience feel the hopelessness in Post-War era, to accent the themes of deception, friendship, and morality in the film? 2) How does the characterizationRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society1326 Words   |  6 Pagespopularity contest, where we add people just too have more friends on the list than our neighbor. However, true friends are not usually acquired on Facebook. According to the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle believes that a real friendship is for its own sake and Facebook friendship concentrate much on amusement and utility. Most people that have a Facebook account have approximately more than 100 friends. Each of those people has a particular relation to each other in one way or another. To some we talkRead MoreThe Magic Of A Family Meal By Ellen Goodman1260 Words   |  6 Pagesdemonstrates the negative effects of making one’s profession a priority over one’s personal life and relationships. Marion Winik in â€Å"What Are Friends For?† details the variety and opportunities one has to make friends throughout life. Best friends can persevere through hardships and distance as written in â€Å"Friends Forever† by Barbara Hagen. Analyzing these articles substantiated that family and friends are essential to a happy life. â€Å"The Magic of a Family Meal† by Nancy Gibbs is an enlightening articleRead MoreInterpersonal Essay Based on a Movie840 Words   |  4 Pagesrelationship from it’s infancy to an ending. In the movie we can clearly identify all ten stages of this model. Stage # 1 - Initiating According to the Knapp model, the beginning of every relationship—especially an intimate, romantic or close friendship—begins with the initiation stage. This stage involves the initial contact with another person. In the movie the stage of initiation begins when Harry and Sally meet for the first time and prepare to share a day travelling together in Sally’s carRead MoreThe Is A Common Game1394 Words   |  6 PagesAs the game goes along, the tower becomes more fragile with every block taken. Finally, all that is left is the strong blocks holding the tower together in place. This is where the most harmful lies come in; the bigger lies make the tower of our friendships and relationships come tumbling down. In our world, we consider honesty a firm building block in all of our relationships, yet honesty seems to be twisted into something that it’s not. We are losing sight of honesty’s actual meaning: telling theRead MoreSimilarities Of Plato And Aristotle1617 Words   |  7 Pagesobjective and universal. Additionally Plato also connects it to the gods and how it is also good to the society, the audience acknowledges this when reading, â€Å"Truth is the beginning to every good to the gods, and every good to the man†. When analyzing in detail more the philosophers and their writings the lector acknowledges that learning from all the truths helps build the indubitable Truth. When reading â€Å"The Republic† and many quotes mentioned from Aristotle the reader can interpretRead MoreA Research Study On Hot Spot Policing Essay1663 Words   |  7 Pagesdifferent hot spot enforcements techniques or applications in one study. One hot spot area received a more standard heavy presence of marked patrol cars otherwise known as a saturation detail and the other area was exposed to a problem-oriented policing technique that focused on law enforcement officers analyzing the problem in the area and developing a more customized corrective action for each problem. At the end of the experiment the results showed an overall decrease in crime in the patrol saturationRead MoreReflection Essay1256 Words   |  6 Pageswould be able to understand it.   Ã‚  Ã‚   During the ethnographic writing, I was faced with the idea of evaluating, analyzing, and synthesizing data from my sources. I used evaluating in my writing to identify whether or not the source would be useful in my paper. This process also helped when making sure I wasn’t using the same information over and over again throughout my paper. Analyzing allowed me to really think about the information I was finding and being able to fully break down the text intoRead MoreEach Short Chapter Story Written By Junot Diaz Presents1428 Words   |  6 PagesEach short chapter story written by Junot Diaz presents different key ideas and themes that can easily be identified when reading and analyzing important details contained in his short personal fiction. To begin with, language is one of the important key themes that Junot Diaz focuses on his story. Throughout the chapters, one is able to see a combination of words that contain a mixture of slang in both English and Spani sh. Likewise, in his short stories, Diaz includes a variety of Spanish words

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Five Star Beer free essay sample

Five Star Beer Problems Analysis Decreasing Market Share Five Star Beer had a great history. This was closely related to the policy of China at that time. Before 1978, Chinese government controlled almost all Chinese economy and resources. Every company was owned by government. Every activity was under the control of Chinese government, including what the prize was, how much beer it should make, where to sell, and how much the employees should earn. Five Star Beer served Beijing and the surrounding Hebei province.After reform and opening-up policy was established in 1978, there were more and more brewers throughout China. But Five Star still enjoyed a majority of the Beijing market prior to the early 1990s. However, by the early 1990s, Five Star had to compete in the Beijing area with Three Ring Beer. Also, not only in Beijing area, Five Star had to compete throughout the country because in the earlier time, it gained some market share in other area by establishing of licensing agreements between itself and other regional brewers. We will write a custom essay sample on Five Star Beer or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page At that time, Five Star would not be the â€Å"only one† any more. It had to consider how to sell the bear. Quality Problem It was also the time that ASIMCO discovered Five Star Beer had a great quality difficulty, leading the second and also the most important thing that Five Star Beer should deal with quality. Products from the same company should have nothing different except variety, taste, and characteristics, which points out that quality issues will not be tolerated.Quality is the life of the company. However, ASIMCO found there was a severe quality problem within Five Star Beer. The reason may be that Five Star developed too fast and signed too many licensing agreements within its capacity. Just giving other regional brewers a â€Å"Five Star† brand instead of giving them technical support and standard procedure could lead to produce unqualified products. From another aspect, Five Star never used to think about its quality because

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Trade Between Africa and Eurasia Changed During the Era free essay sample

Although key elements of the trade between Africa and Eurasia changed during the era of 300-1450, a few factors stayed the same. In 300 C. E. , trade routes were primarily between Europe and North Africa. The way that they changed by the time of 1450 was that they expanded southward and westward. By 1450, these trade routes went through West Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Indian Ocean. One factor that stayed the same during this time period was that the northern coast of Africa was always involved in the trade between Africa and the rest of Eurasia. At the start of this period in 300 C. E, Afro-Eurasian trade was not very sophisticated. There was some collaboration with cultures in the Mediterranean. European goods were brought to Africa and traded for African produces, some of which include spices. The partial interaction from Europe to Africa was a result of the waning of the Roman Empire. We will write a custom essay sample on Trade Between Africa and Eurasia Changed During the Era or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The southern part of Europe was facing complications, giving evidence to why they were not profoundly involved in trade during this time. This factor changed throughout the time period. For example, during the 800s on onward, Europe had become more stabilized. In addition, the Islamic Empire had risen in the Middle East. With the addition of the Islamic Empire, more regions were available to trade. Because the Islamic Empire had risen, new trade routes had risen as well. Islamic traders came from the east, while merchants from Europe arrived from the north. By this point, the Europeans had different types of technologies that let them go pass the once opaque Sahara desert. Because of this advancement, a larger concentration of trade occurred. While Europe traded with Africa, Indian traders began to arrive to West Africa, as part of the Indian Ocean Trade Network. In sub-Saharan Africa, the system of the gold-salt trade developed. In this trade, Arab and Berber traders crossed the Sahara with caravans loaded with salt. They also carried cloth, weapons, and manufactured goods from the Mediterranean. Meanwhile, African traders brought gold north. The sub-Saharan kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai became major contributors in the gold and salt trade. This continued from the 800s to the 1300s. At this point of the time period, the Mongols had expanded throughout Eurasia. However, the only parts of the trade that were ffected were the northern parts between Europe and Asia, because the Mongols concentrated on mostly China, Russia, and some parts of Eastern Europe. By the 1450s, the gold-salt trade started to decline, and soon, the center of trade started to shift away from the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. This was because the age of exploration started in Europe, and trade concentrated more towards the Atlantic Ocean. Even though these asp ects describe the ways that change occurred with trade between Afro-Eurasia, one important part did stay the same. North Africa was consistent and always a key part of trade between the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. In 300, North Africa was the only area that traded with the Mediterranean. In the time of the gold-salt trade, European venders and Islamic merchants arrived in North Africa. North African merchants still traded even when Europeans started to shift the balance of trade to the Americas starting from the mid-1400s. This is how trade systems between Africa and Europe stayed the same between the years 300-1450. The changes that took place regarding trade between 300-1450 impact other parts of history. One effect of the occurrence of trade in this region was the bubonic plague, which happened around the 1300s. It was originally brought from merchants traveling to Europe from Asia. Another effect of trade during this time is that empires rose and fell. Some of these empires include the rise and fall of the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai Empires in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, these empires rose because of expanded trade in this region as time passed, and fell because of new resources elsewhere (Mali), or because of the trade of advanced weaponry (Songhai). Lastly, even today, Northern Africa is still one of the major players of trade in this region, even though many areas around here are experiencing political and economic problems. However, North Africa is a major of oil and other products and resources to both Europe and the United States. In conclusion, these are the changes and continuities of trade between Africa and Eurasia between the years 300-1450, and how they affect other parts of history. In addition, these events also affect life today.